Logging in from a TTY
Perhaps this article should be simplified and oriented towards average user? (Ben79 2019-08-19) Maybe also combined with this. A How To for when system is really broken.
Now we want to know how we are moving in the command prompt, rel. what that is.
The prompt can be used in the real time mode, for example if we have X11 installed or not even if we KDE, Gnome, or Windows IceWm Maker, and yet there are many other surfaces on the X11 server.
Now let's say that we have no X11 installed.
Thus, the Bootmagager is first started where we can choose what we want to boot, so what system we want to get to the start.
Now we choose times Linux using the cursor keys and Enter key (return / enter)
If the kernel is invoked, the various services of the system makes available, so that we can start something with our computer at all, and the devices can be addressed on the motherboard and the motherboard and can work all at all.
After the kernel was then worked through, the "init" is called service which then calls various services that we can use as our sound card, graphics card and other. How, then, to see how everything with [OK] confirm.
If not so, we must later make or various settings and memorize what funtioniert not working properly, then here we can discuss on forum ;)
Once everything is in place gone through properly, then comes afterwards, after all the comic services that were displayed * biggrin * us a call, we can log example:
Distributionrelease Version Blabla Kernelversion 0.11.fü5zehn on an i686 / tty1 Localhost Login :_
here the name of the User is requested.
So when we enter there "root" or the user, we have stated, we have one more question:
Distributionrelease Version Blabla Kernelversion 0.11.fü5zehn on an i686 / tty1 Localhost Login :root_ [enter]
Distributionrelease Version Blabla Kernelversion 0.11.fü5zehn on an i686 / tty1 Localhost Login :root Password :_
Here we must enter the password that we have provided with the installation as root / main password.
In this entry, we usually get no "echo" so we no asterisks or letter appears, that is for safety that way.
After we entered the correct password, then appears a "normal" prompt at which we are then allowed to enter commands. It looks like the following example:
Distributionrelease Version Blabla Kernelversion 0.11.fü5zehn on an i686 / tty1 Localhost Login :root Password : Last login: Wen May 26 09:51:01 on vc/1 [root@localhost root]#_
which means that we have the 26 at 9:51 and 1st second account as the last Wednesday in May at our Virtual Console first Of the virtual consoles by default we have 6 units available. If we have a problem on a console, for example, we can to "F6" to change "alt + F1" to another console.
But if we now have a graphical login, then explains the everything of themselves when Rumklickern. Next we can see right now there also several Windows Manager for options and, where appropriate, genetic endsprechenden us there also select a window manager.
First, we are in our window manager, so on the graphical interface. This time we change now, by "ctrl + alt + F1" key.
With "alt+F7" come you back to the grafical
sureface so on the running X-Server!
This is on the terminals, or bash finishes with "alt-F1" to F7 ie F1 to F6 to switch directly into the terminal and "alt + F7" to get back to the running X server and the further description reading :)
You can immediately try it :)) damage or cause problems should not really, because Linux is a multiuser system.
The X server is simply a service that provides a graphical interface to the window manager - as WMaker, KDE, GNOME, and how they all hot - Replace, no more and no less. Linux is just a kernel and by the bash, tcsh, sh provides an input option which provides an interface from computer to computer to man. Thus, it provides a ready input option, a prompt (Latin Promptus "ready available"). Therefore we say colloquially: prompt prompt, or simply go into the terminal's because it strongly to remote data transmission, so dial recalls. Thus there where you can Telnet to log on to a log wall. This occurs today, but more and more into the background, because telnet, ie terminal Lan Networking disappears more and more, because it is too unsafe. Provide a log wall has various security aspects of concern '.
Therefore, the Secure Shell (ssh) is used instead of telnet, where you can make specific safety conditions for use. More about it in your manual, or on the Web at Goggle various books or PDF files that you can load in the network.
So that was a little bit of the history :)
Well do not we go to the console and login us.
Now we have our prompt again before us, with the key combination so we can go and read on ;)
Now we come times to the general commands:
dir = the normal version of Dos translated to Linux (Directory Information Reading) ls = an extended version of "dir" only that one with "ls" read a lot more can be.(list) mkdir = Create a directory(make direcktory) rm = Delete some(remake) mv = move some (move) cp = copy something (copy) #very well to files previously to backup e.g. in .old
The first were the basic commands that everyone should know.
To get more information, we have in the Linux dist. the Disributionen - if installed - the manual pages, in short / written:
man = Manual pages are called in the prompt.
man = manual pages which are called in the prompt.
now let's know more about "ls"
#man ls [enter]
with "q" we will come back out of the manual. The manual pages are our best friend, because we can show any time on various things about these manuals help eigendlich. For many programs, it is also possible in the prompt, the program with the parameters "- help", "start", and thus also to get help:
[root@localhost root]#ls --help [enter]
Next, there may also be several man pages, the man pages or advanced as we never see. There is also the command "whatis":
[root@localhost root]#whatis ls [enter]
as can also:
[root@localhost root]#whatis man [enter]
[root@localhost root]#man whatis [enter]
Enter. There we see that there are opportunities for all. Just as with "man", so:
[root@localhost root]#man man [enter]
[root@localhost root]#man whatis [enter]
So we can quite well inform us about the help system of Linux.
Now we come once more to other commands. We get out, as we now make us another gimmick to use the bash namely the Tab key (the key above the shift key with the left and right arrows), which can complete the word at once, or twice, printing and other printing commands and words or files that exist in the system or Dateipath, lists.
We can try it again:
[root@localhost root]#a_ [tab-tab]
(the tabulatorkey it is the one on the left side, with 2 arrows to both sides)
and now comes the question :
[root@localhost root]#a Display all 100 possibilities? (y or n)
There we now just say "y" yes, yes only 100 pieces :)
But now we see that there are still less ;) When I started, there were significantly less * lol *
We can now work with you, where we now have no man page, this command is also not important. We can
go through the whole alphabet ;))
So now, but we want to know what, or how we can edit a file to make changes ....
There are extra programs. I just count on it a few times:
I myself like to use pico and joe, as they Editioren are quite small and very fast and you can just purely work. Next is an editor mcedit by mc (Midnight Commander similar to Norton Commander).
Which editor you use, you have to try yourself. Which editor is a better, everyone must decide for themselves.
So now I have times where the basic things described, you should know times just to deal with Linux where can somehow and the visitors to see the prompt. I wish you good times as far as incorporation and have fun while testing :)
Oh, as a final word, you sometimes placing no limits, I've had more than 1,000 system installations behind me, so if something goes wrong: For each system installation can only serve Lehrner!
greetings and have fun